6.1. Design Documents

In this section we’ll show how to write design documents, using the built-in JavaScript Query Server.

But before we start to write our first document, let’s take a look at the list of common objects that will be used during our code journey - we’ll be using them extensively within each function:

6.1.1. View Functions

Views are the primary tool used for querying and reporting on CouchDB databases.

Map Functions

mapfun(doc)
Arguments:
  • doc – The document that is being processed

Map functions accept a single document as the argument and (optionally) emit() key/value pairs that are stored in a view.

function (doc) {
  if (doc.type === 'post' && doc.tags && Array.isArray(doc.tags)) {
    doc.tags.forEach(function (tag) {
      emit(tag.toLowerCase(), 1);
    });
  }
}

In this example a key/value pair is emitted for each value in the tags array of a document with a type of “post”. Note that emit() may be called many times for a single document, so the same document may be available by several different keys.

Also keep in mind that each document is sealed to prevent the situation where one map function changes document state and another receives a modified version.

For efficiency reasons, documents are passed to a group of map functions - each document is processed by a group of map functions from all views of the related design document. This means that if you trigger an index update for one view in the design document, all others will get updated too.

Since version 1.1.0, map supports CommonJS modules and the require() function.

Reduce and Rereduce Functions

redfun(keys, values[, rereduce])
Arguments:
  • keys – Array of pairs of docid-key for related map function results. Always null if rereduce is running (has true value).
  • values – Array of map function result values.
  • rereduce – Boolean flag to indicate a rereduce run.
Returns:

Reduces values

Reduce functions take two required arguments of keys and values lists - the result of the related map function - and an optional third value which indicates if rereduce mode is active or not. Rereduce is used for additional reduce values list, so when it is true there is no information about related keys (first argument is null).

Note that if the result of a reduce function is longer than the initial values list then a Query Server error will be raised. However, this behavior can be disabled by setting reduce_limit config option to false:

[query_server_config]
reduce_limit = false

While disabling reduce_limit might be useful for debug proposes, remember that the main task of reduce functions is to reduce the mapped result, not to make it bigger. Generally, your reduce function should converge rapidly to a single value - which could be an array or similar object.

Builtin Reduce Functions

Additionally, CouchDB has three built-in reduce functions. These are implemented in Erlang and run inside CouchDB, so they are much faster than the equivalent JavaScript functions: _sum, _count and _stats. Their equivalents in JavaScript:

// could be replaced by _sum
function(keys, values) {
    return sum(values);
}

// could be replaced by _count
function(keys, values, rereduce) {
    if (rereduce) {
        return sum(values);
    } else {
        return values.length;
    }
}

// could be replaced by _stats
function(keys, values, rereduce) {
    if (rereduce) {
        return {
            'sum': values.reduce(function(a, b) { return a + b.sum }, 0),
            'min': values.reduce(function(a, b) { return Math.min(a, b.min) }, Infinity),
            'max': values.reduce(function(a, b) { return Math.max(a, b.max) }, -Infinity),
            'count': values.reduce(function(a, b) { return a + b.count }, 0),
            'sumsqr': values.reduce(function(a, b) { return a + b.sumsqr }, 0)
        }
    } else {
        return {
            'sum': sum(values),
            'min': Math.min.apply(null, values),
            'max': Math.max.apply(null, values),
            'count': values.length,
            'sumsqr': (function() {
            var sumsqr = 0;

            values.forEach(function (value) {
                sumsqr += value * value;
            });

            return sumsqr;
            })(),
        }
    }
}

Note

Why don’t reduce functions support CommonJS modules?

While map functions have limited access to stored modules through require(), there is no such feature for reduce functions. The reason lies deep inside the way map and reduce functions are processed by the Query Server. Let’s take a look at map functions first:

  1. CouchDB sends all map functions in a processed design document to the Query Server.
  2. the Query Server handles them one by one, compiles and puts them onto an internal stack.
  3. after all map functions have been processed, CouchDB will send the remaining documents for indexing, one by one.
  4. the Query Server receives the document object and applies it to every function from the stack. The emitted results are then joined into a single array and sent back to CouchDB.

Now let’s see how reduce functions are handled:

  1. CouchDB sends as a single command the list of available reduce functions with the result list of key-value pairs that were previously returned from the map functions.
  2. the Query Server compiles the reduce functions and applies them to the key-value lists. The reduced result is sent back to CouchDB.

As you may note, reduce functions are applied in a single shot to the map results while map functions are applied to documents one by one. This means that it’s possible for map functions to precompile CommonJS libraries and use them during the entire view processing, but for reduce functions they would be compiled again and again for each view result reduction, which would lead to performance degradation.

6.1.2. Show Functions

showfun(doc, req)
Arguments:
  • doc – The document that is being processed; may be omitted.
  • reqRequest object.
Returns:

Response object

Return type:

object or string

Show functions are used to represent documents in various formats, commonly as HTML pages with nice formatting. They can also be used to run server-side functions without requiring a pre-existing document.

Basic example of show function could be:

function(doc, req){
    if (doc) {
        return "Hello from " + doc._id + "!";
    } else {
        return "Hello, world!";
    }
}

Also, there is more simple way to return json encoded data:

function(doc, req){
    return {
        'json': {
            'id': doc['_id'],
            'rev': doc['_rev']
        }
    }
}

and even files (this one is CouchDB logo):

function(doc, req){
    return {
        'headers': {
            'Content-Type' : 'image/png',
        },
        'base64': ''.concat(
            'iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAABAAAAAQCAMAAAAoLQ9TAAAAsV',
            'BMVEUAAAD////////////////////////5ur3rEBn////////////////wDBL/',
            'AADuBAe9EB3IEBz/7+//X1/qBQn2AgP/f3/ilpzsDxfpChDtDhXeCA76AQH/v7',
            '/84eLyWV/uc3bJPEf/Dw/uw8bRWmP1h4zxSlD6YGHuQ0f6g4XyQkXvCA36MDH6',
            'wMH/z8/yAwX64ODeh47BHiv/Ly/20dLQLTj98PDXWmP/Pz//39/wGyJ7Iy9JAA',
            'AADHRSTlMAbw8vf08/bz+Pv19jK/W3AAAAg0lEQVR4Xp3LRQ4DQRBD0QqTm4Y5',
            'zMxw/4OleiJlHeUtv2X6RbNO1Uqj9g0RMCuQO0vBIg4vMFeOpCWIWmDOw82fZx',
            'vaND1c8OG4vrdOqD8YwgpDYDxRgkSm5rwu0nQVBJuMg++pLXZyr5jnc1BaH4GT',
            'LvEliY253nA3pVhQqdPt0f/erJkMGMB8xucAAAAASUVORK5CYII=')
    }
}

But what if you need to represent data in different formats via a single function? Functions registerType() and provides() are your the best friends in that question:

function(doc, req){
    provides('json', function(){
        return {'json': doc}
    });
    provides('html', function(){
        return '<pre>' + toJSON(doc) + '</pre>'
    })
    provides('xml', function(){
        return {
            'headers': {'Content-Type': 'application/xml'},
            'body' : ''.concat(
                '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>\n',
                '<doc>',
                (function(){
                    escape = function(s){
                        return s.replace(/&quot;/g, '"')
                                .replace(/&gt;/g, '>')
                                .replace(/&lt;/g, '<')
                                .replace(/&amp;/g, '&');
                    };
                    var content = '';
                    for(var key in doc){
                        if(!doc.hasOwnProperty(key)) continue;
                        var value = escape(toJSON(doc[key]));
                        var key = escape(key);
                        content += ''.concat(
                            '<' + key + '>',
                            value
                            '</' + key + '>'
                        )
                    }
                    return content;
                })(),
                '</doc>'
            )
        }
    })
    registerType('text-json', 'text/json')
    provides('text-json', function(){
        return toJSON(doc);
    })
}

This function may return html, json , xml or our custom text json format representation of same document object with same processing rules. Probably, the xml provider in our function needs more care to handle nested objects correctly, and keys with invalid characters, but you’ve got the idea!

See also

CouchDB Wiki:
CouchDB Guide:

6.1.3. List Functions

listfun(head, req)
Arguments:
Returns:

Last chunk.

Return type:

string

While Show Functions are used to customize document presentation, List Functions are used for the same purpose, but on View Functions results.

The following list function formats the view and represents it as a very simple HTML page:

function(head, req){
    start({
        'headers': {
            'Content-Type': 'text/html'
        }
    });
    send('<html><body><table>');
    send('<tr><th>ID</th><th>Key</th><th>Value</th></tr>')
    while(row = getRow()){
        send(''.concat(
            '<tr>',
            '<td>' + toJSON(row.id) + '</td>',
            '<td>' + toJSON(row.key) + '</td>',
            '<td>' + toJSON(row.value) + '</td>',
            '</tr>'
        ));
    }
    send('</table></body></html>');
}

Templates and styles could obviously be used to present data in a nicer fashion, but this is an excellent starting point. Note that you may also use registerType() and provides() functions in the same way as for Show Functions!

6.1.4. Update Functions

updatefun(doc, req)
Arguments:
  • doc – The document that is being processed.
  • reqRequest object
Returns:

Two-element array: the first element is the (updated or new) document, which is committed to the database. If the first element is null no document will be committed to the database. If you are updating an existing document, it should already have an _id set, and if you are creating a new document, make sure to set its _id to something, either generated based on the input or the req.uuid provided. The second element is the response that will be sent back to the caller.

Update handlers are functions that clients can request to invoke server-side logic that will create or update a document. This feature allows a range of use cases such as providing a server-side last modified timestamp, updating individual fields in a document without first getting the latest revision, etc.

When the request to an update handler includes a document ID in the URL, the server will provide the function with the most recent version of that document. You can provide any other values needed by the update handler function via the POST/PUT entity body or query string parameters of the request.

A basic example that demonstrates all use-cases of update handlers:

function(doc, req){
    if (!doc){
        if ('id' in req && req['id']){
            // create new document
            return [{'_id': req['id']}, 'New World']
        }
        // change nothing in database
        return [null, 'Empty World']
    }
    doc['world'] = 'hello';
    doc['edited_by'] = req['userCtx']['name']
    return [doc, 'Edited World!']
}

See also

CouchDB Wiki:

6.1.5. Filter Functions

filterfun(doc, req)
Arguments:
Returns:

Boolean value: true means that doc passes the filter rules, false means that it does not.

Filter functions mostly act like Show Functions and List Functions: they format, or filter the changes feed.

Classic Filters

By default the changes feed emits all database documents changes. But if you’re waiting for some special changes, processing all documents is inefficient.

Filters are special design document functions that allow the changes feed to emit only specific documents that pass filter rules.

Let’s assume that our database is a mailbox and we need to handle only new mail events (documents with the status new). Our filter function would look like this:

function(doc, req){
    // we need only `mail` documents
    if (doc.type != 'mail'){
        return false;
    }
    // we're interested only in `new` ones
    if (doc.status != 'new'){
        return false;
    }
    return true; // passed!
}

Filter functions must return true if a document passed all the rules. Now, if you apply this function to the changes feed it will emit only changes about “new mails”:

GET /somedatabase/_changes?filter=mailbox/new_mail HTTP/1.1
{"results":[
{"seq":1,"id":"df8eca9da37dade42ee4d7aa3401f1dd","changes":[{"rev":"1-c2e0085a21d34fa1cecb6dc26a4ae657"}]},
{"seq":7,"id":"df8eca9da37dade42ee4d7aa34024714","changes":[{"rev":"1-29d748a6e87b43db967fe338bcb08d74"}]},
],
"last_seq":27}

Note that the value of last_seq is 27, but we received only two records. Seems like any other changes were for documents that haven’t passed our filter.

We probably need to filter the changes feed of our mailbox by more than a single status value. We’re also interested in statuses like “spam” to update spam-filter heuristic rules, “outgoing” to let a mail daemon actually send mails, and so on. Creating a lot of similar functions that actually do similar work isn’t good idea - so we need a dynamic filter.

You may have noticed that filter functions take a second argument named request. This allows the creation of dynamic filters based on query parameters, user context and more.

The dynamic version of our filter looks like this:

function(doc, req){
    // we need only `mail` documents
    if (doc.type != 'mail'){
        return false;
    }
    // we're interested only in requested status
    if (doc.status != req.query.status){
        return false;
    }
    return true; // passed!
}

and now we have passed the status query parameter in the request to let our filter match only the required documents:

GET /somedatabase/_changes?filter=mailbox/by_status&status=new HTTP/1.1
{"results":[
{"seq":1,"id":"df8eca9da37dade42ee4d7aa3401f1dd","changes":[{"rev":"1-c2e0085a21d34fa1cecb6dc26a4ae657"}]},
{"seq":7,"id":"df8eca9da37dade42ee4d7aa34024714","changes":[{"rev":"1-29d748a6e87b43db967fe338bcb08d74"}]},
],
"last_seq":27}

and we can easily change filter behavior with:

GET /somedatabase/_changes?filter=mailbox/by_status&status=spam HTTP/1.1
{"results":[
{"seq":11,"id":"8960e91220798fc9f9d29d24ed612e0d","changes":[{"rev":"3-cc6ff71af716ddc2ba114967025c0ee0"}]},
],
"last_seq":27}

Combining filters with a continuous feed allows creating powerful event-driven systems.

View Filters

View filters are the same as classic filters above, with one small difference: they use the map instead of the filter function of a view, to filter the changes feed. Each time a key-value pair is emitted from the map function, a change is returned. This allows avoiding filter functions that mostly do the same work as views.

To use them just pass filter=_view and view=designdoc/viewname as request parameters to the changes feed:

GET /somedatabase/_changes?filter=_view&view=dname/viewname  HTTP/1.1

Note

Since view filters use map functions as filters, they can’t show any dynamic behavior since request object is not available.

See also

CouchDB Guide:
CouchDB Wiki:

6.1.6. Validate Document Update Functions

validatefun(newDoc, oldDoc, userCtx, secObj)
Arguments:
  • newDoc – New version of document that will be stored.
  • oldDoc – Previous version of document that is already stored.
  • userCtxUser Context Object
  • secObjSecurity Object
Throws:

forbidden error to gracefully prevent document storing.

Throws:

unauthorized error to prevent storage and allow the user to re-auth.

A design document may contain a function named validate_doc_update which can be used to prevent invalid or unauthorized document update requests from being stored. The function is passed the new document from the update request, the current document stored in the database, a User Context Object containing information about the user writing the document (if present), and a Security Object with lists of database security roles.

Validation functions typically examine the structure of the new document to ensure that required fields are present and to verify that the requesting user should be allowed to make changes to the document properties. For example, an application may require that a user must be authenticated in order to create a new document or that specific document fields be present when a document is updated. The validation function can abort the pending document write by throwing one of two error objects:

// user is not authorized to make the change but may re-authenticate
throw({ unauthorized: 'Error message here.' });

// change is not allowed
throw({ forbidden: 'Error message here.' });

Document validation is optional, and each design document in the database may have at most one validation function. When a write request is received for a given database, the validation function in each design document in that database is called in an unspecified order. If any of the validation functions throw an error, the write will not succeed.

Example: The _design/_auth ddoc from _users database uses a validation function to ensure that documents contain some required fields and are only modified by a user with the _admin role:

function(newDoc, oldDoc, userCtx, secObj) {
    if (newDoc._deleted === true) {
        // allow deletes by admins and matching users
        // without checking the other fields
        if ((userCtx.roles.indexOf('_admin') !== -1) ||
            (userCtx.name == oldDoc.name)) {
            return;
        } else {
            throw({forbidden: 'Only admins may delete other user docs.'});
        }
    }

    if ((oldDoc && oldDoc.type !== 'user') || newDoc.type !== 'user') {
        throw({forbidden : 'doc.type must be user'});
    } // we only allow user docs for now

    if (!newDoc.name) {
        throw({forbidden: 'doc.name is required'});
    }

    if (!newDoc.roles) {
        throw({forbidden: 'doc.roles must exist'});
    }

    if (!isArray(newDoc.roles)) {
        throw({forbidden: 'doc.roles must be an array'});
    }

    if (newDoc._id !== ('org.couchdb.user:' + newDoc.name)) {
        throw({
            forbidden: 'Doc ID must be of the form org.couchdb.user:name'
        });
    }

    if (oldDoc) { // validate all updates
        if (oldDoc.name !== newDoc.name) {
            throw({forbidden: 'Usernames can not be changed.'});
        }
    }

    if (newDoc.password_sha && !newDoc.salt) {
        throw({
            forbidden: 'Users with password_sha must have a salt.' +
                'See /_utils/script/couch.js for example code.'
        });
    }

    var is_server_or_database_admin = function(userCtx, secObj) {
        // see if the user is a server admin
        if(userCtx.roles.indexOf('_admin') !== -1) {
            return true; // a server admin
        }

        // see if the user a database admin specified by name
        if(secObj && secObj.admins && secObj.admins.names) {
            if(secObj.admins.names.indexOf(userCtx.name) !== -1) {
                return true; // database admin
            }
        }

        // see if the user a database admin specified by role
        if(secObj && secObj.admins && secObj.admins.roles) {
            var db_roles = secObj.admins.roles;
            for(var idx = 0; idx < userCtx.roles.length; idx++) {
                var user_role = userCtx.roles[idx];
                if(db_roles.indexOf(user_role) !== -1) {
                    return true; // role matches!
                }
            }
        }

        return false; // default to no admin
    }

    if (!is_server_or_database_admin(userCtx, secObj)) {
        if (oldDoc) { // validate non-admin updates
            if (userCtx.name !== newDoc.name) {
                throw({
                    forbidden: 'You may only update your own user document.'
                });
            }
            // validate role updates
            var oldRoles = oldDoc.roles.sort();
            var newRoles = newDoc.roles.sort();

            if (oldRoles.length !== newRoles.length) {
                throw({forbidden: 'Only _admin may edit roles'});
            }

            for (var i = 0; i < oldRoles.length; i++) {
                if (oldRoles[i] !== newRoles[i]) {
                    throw({forbidden: 'Only _admin may edit roles'});
                }
            }
        } else if (newDoc.roles.length > 0) {
            throw({forbidden: 'Only _admin may set roles'});
        }
    }

    // no system roles in users db
    for (var i = 0; i < newDoc.roles.length; i++) {
        if (newDoc.roles[i][0] === '_') {
            throw({
                forbidden:
                'No system roles (starting with underscore) in users db.'
            });
        }
    }

    // no system names as names
    if (newDoc.name[0] === '_') {
        throw({forbidden: 'Username may not start with underscore.'});
    }

    var badUserNameChars = [':'];

    for (var i = 0; i < badUserNameChars.length; i++) {
        if (newDoc.name.indexOf(badUserNameChars[i]) >= 0) {
            throw({forbidden: 'Character `' + badUserNameChars[i] +
                    '` is not allowed in usernames.'});
        }
    }
}

Note

The return statement is used only for function, it has no impact on the validation process.

See also

CouchDB Guide:
CouchDB Wiki:

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